2016-Fluid–Structure Interaction Study of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Dynamics Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics.pdf
Computational modeling of heart valve dynamics incorporating both fluid dynamics and valve structural responses has been challenging. In this study, we developed a novel fully-coupled fluid–structure interaction (FSI) model using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). A previously developed nonlinear finite element (FE) model of transcatheter aortic valves (TAV) was utilized to couple with SPH to simulate valve leaflet dynamics throughout the entire cardiac cycle. Comparative simulations were performed to investigate the impact of using FE-only models vs. FSI models, as well as an isotropic vs. an anisotropic leaflet material model in TAV simulations. From the results, substantial differences in leaflet kinematics between FE-only and FSI models were observed, and the FSI model could capture the realistic leaflet dynamic deformation due to its more accurate spatial and temporal loading conditions imposed on the leaflets. The stress and the strain distributions were similar between the FE and FSI simulations. However, the peak stresses were different due to the water hammer effect induced by the fluid inertia in the FSI model during the closing phase, which led to 13–28% lower peak stresses in the FE-only model compared to that of the FSI model. The simulation results also indicated that tissue anisotropy had a minor impact on hemodynamics of the valve. However, a lower tissue stiffness in the radial direction of the leaflets could reduce the leaflet peak stress caused by the water hammer effect. It is hoped that the developed FSI models can serve as an effective tool to better assess valve dynamics and optimize next generation TAV designs.