Health Research Alliance
1-s2.0-S2213231721003438-main.pdf (2.81 MB)
Download file


Download (2.81 MB)
journal contribution
posted on 2023-04-11, 00:32 authored by Leo Otterbein, Rodrigo W. Alves de Souza, James Byrne, Louis M. Chu

The relationship between carbon monoxide and the heart has been extensively studied in both clinical and preclinical settings. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is keenly focused on the ill effects of carbon monoxide on the heart when presented with proposals for clinical trials to evaluate efficacy of this gasotransmitter in a various disease settings. This review provides an overview of the rationale that examines the actions of the FDA when considering clinical testing of CO, and contrast that with the continued accumulation of data that clearly show not only that CO can be used safely, but is potently cardioprotective in clinically relevant small and large animal models. Data emerging from Phase I and Phase II clinical trials argues against CO being dangerous to the heart and thus it needs to be redefined and evaluated as any other substance being proposed for use in humans. More than twenty years ago, the belief that CO could be used as a salutary molecule was ridiculed by experts in physiology and medicine. Like all agents designed for use in humans, careful pharmacology and safety are paramount, but continuing to hinder progress based on long-standing dogma in the absence of data is improper. Now, CO is being tested in multiple clinical trials using innovative delivery methods and has proven to be safe. The hope, based on compelling preclinical data, is that it will continue to be evaluated and ultimately approved as an effective therapeutic.


Grant ID


Usage metrics

    American Heart Association