Carnosine prevents Aβ-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in microglial cells: a key role of TGF-β1

By using an in vitro model of AD, we showed that carnosine prevents Aβ-induced oxidative stress in BV-2 microglial cells by decreasing the expression of iNOS and NADPH oxidase and the concentrations of nitric oxide and superoxide anion. Carnosine is also able to decrease the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, simultaneously rescuing IL-10 levels and increasing the synthesis and the release of TGF-β1. Carnosine, through its multimodal mechanism of action, might represent a new pharmacological tool to yield neuroprotection in AD.