Generation of Embryonic Origin-Specific Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), a highly mosaic tissue, arise from multiple distinct embryonic origins and populate different regions of our vascular network with defined boundaries. Accumulating evidence has revealed that the heterogeneity of VSMC origins contributes to region-specific vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysm. These findings highlight the necessity of taking into account lineage-dependent responses of VSMCs to common vascular risk factors when studying vascular diseases. This chapter describes a reproducible, stepwise protocol for the generation of isogenic VSMC subtypes originated from proepicardium, second heart field, cardiac neural crest, and ventral somite using human induced pluripotent stem cells. By leveraging this robust induction protocol, patient-derived VSMC subtypes of desired embryonic origins can be generated for disease modeling as well as drug screening and development for vasculopathies with regional susceptibility.