Phylloquinone Intake Is Associated with Cardiac Structure and Function in Adolescents
Background: Associations between childhood vitamin K consumption and cardiac structure and function have not been investigated.Objective: We determined associations between phylloquinone (vitamin K-1) intake and left ventricular (LV) structure and function in adolescents.Methods: We assessed diet with three to seven 24-h recalls and physical activity (PA) by accelerometry in 766 adolescents (aged 14-18 y, 50% female, 49% black). Fat-free soft tissue (FFST) mass and fat mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. LV structure [LV mass (g)/height (m)2.7 (LV mass index) and relative wall thickness] and function [midwall fractional shortening (MFS) and ejection fraction] were assessed by echocardiography. Associations were evaluated by comparing the LV structure and function variables across tertiles of phylloquinone intake. Prevalence and OR of LV hypertrophy (LV mass index >95th percentile for age and sex) were also assessed by phylloquinone tertiles.Results: The prevalence of LV hypertrophy progressively decreased across tertiles of phylloquinone intake (P-trend < 0.01). Multinomial logistic regression-adjusting for age, sex, race, Tanner stage, systolic blood pressure, FFST mass, fat mass, socioeconomic status, PA, and intakes of energy, fiber, calcium, vitamin C, vitamin D, and sodium-revealed that compared with the highest phylloquinone intake tertile (reference group), the adjusted OR for LV hypertrophy was 3.3 (95% CI: 1.2, 7.4) for those in the lowest phylloquinone intake tertile. When LV structure variables were compared across phylloquinone intake tertiles adjusting for the same covariates, there were significant linear downward trends for LV mass index (6.5% difference, tertile 1 compared with tertile 3) and relative wall thickness (9.2% difference, tertile 1 compared with tertile 3; both P-trend ≤ 0.02). Conversely, significant linear upward trends across phylloquinone intake tertiles were observed for MFS (3.4% difference, tertile 1 compared with tertile 3) and ejection fraction (2.6% difference, tertile 1 compared with tertile 3; both P-trend < 0.04).Conclusion: Our adolescent data suggest that subclinical cardiac structure and function variables are most favorable at higher phylloquinone intakes.