Improving Cell Engraftment in Cardiac Stem Cell Therapy

<div>Myocardial infarction (MI) affects millions of people worldwide.MI causes massive cardiac cell death and heart function decrease.</div><div>However, heart tissue cannot effectively regenerate by itself.While stem cell therapy has been considered an effective approach for</div><div>regeneration, the efficacy of cardiac stem cell therapy remains low due to inferior cell engraftment in the infarcted region. This</div><div>is mainly a result of low cell retention in the tissue and poor cell survival under ischemic, immune rejection and inflammatory</div><div>conditions. Various approaches have been explored to improve cell engraftment: increase of cell retention using biomaterials as</div><div>cell carriers; augmentation of cell survival under ischemic conditions by preconditioning cells, genetic modification of cells, and</div><div>controlled release of growth factors and oxygen; and enhancement of cell survival by protecting cells from excessive inflammation</div><div>and immune surveillance. In this paper, we review current progress, advantages, disadvantages, and potential solutions of these</div><div>approaches.</div>