Experimental models of cardiac physiology and pathology.

Experimental models of cardiac disease play a key role in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease and developing new
therapies. The features of the experimental models should reflect the clinical phenotype, which can have a wide spectrum of
underlying mechanisms. We review characteristics of commonly used experimental models of cardiac physiology and pathophysiology
in all translational steps including in vitro, small animal, and large animal models. Understanding their characteristics
and relevance to clinical disease is the key for successful translation to effective therapies.