Experimental models of cardiac physiology and pathology.

<div>Experimental models of cardiac disease play a key role in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease and developing new</div><div>therapies. The features of the experimental models should reflect the clinical phenotype, which can have a wide spectrum of</div><div>underlying mechanisms. We review characteristics of commonly used experimental models of cardiac physiology and pathophysiology</div><div>in all translational steps including in vitro, small animal, and large animal models. Understanding their characteristics</div><div>and relevance to clinical disease is the key for successful translation to effective therapies.</div>