Differential acute and chronic responses in insulin action in cultured myotubes following from nondiabetic severely obese humans following gastric bypass surgery
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery has been shown to induce positive metabolic adaptations for individuals with severe obesity (body mass index ≥40 kg/m2), including improved peripheral insulin action. Although a major site of insulin action, the time course changes in skeletal muscle glucose metabolism following RYGB is unclear.
To investigate the acute and chronic effects of RYGB surgery on insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism in cultured human primary myotubes derived from nondiabetic severely obese humans.
East Carolina University Bariatric Surgery Center and East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute.
Primary human skeletal muscle cells were isolated from biopsies obtained from 8 women with severe obesity before, 1 month, and 7 months following RYGB surgery. Glucose metabolism, glycogen content, and insulin signal transduction were determined in differentiated myotubes.
Insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis and glucose oxidation increased in human myotubes derived from patients with severe obesity at both 1 and 7 months post-RYGB. However, there were no alterations indicative of enhanced insulin signal transduction. At 1 month post-RYGB, muscle glycogen levels were lower (-23%) and phosphorylation of acetyl CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) was elevated (+16%); both returned to presurgery levels at 7 months after RYGB in myotubes derived from patients. At 7 months post-RYGB, there was an increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α) protein content (+54%).
These data indicate that insulin action intrinsically improves in cultured human primary myotubes derived from nondiabetic severely obese patients following RYGB surgery; however, the cellular alterations involved appear to consist of distinct acute and chronic components.