Biomaterial property-controlled stem cell fates for cardiac regeneration

2019-03-04T23:43:07Z (GMT) by Jianjun Guan Yanyi Xu
<div>Myocardial infarction (MI) affects more than 8 million people in the United States alone. Due to the</div><div>insufficient regeneration capacity of the native myocardium, one widely studied approach is cardiac</div><div>tissue engineering, in which cells are delivered with or without biomaterials and/or regulatory factors to</div><div>fully regenerate the cardiac functions. Specifically, in vitro cardiac tissue engineering focuses on using</div><div>biomaterials as a reservoir for cells to attach, as well as a carrier of various regulatory factors such as</div><div>growth factors and peptides, providing high cell retention and a proper microenvironment for cells to</div><div>migrate, grow and differentiate within the scaffolds before implantation. Many studies have shown that</div><div>the full establishment of a functional cardiac tissue in vitro requires synergistic actions between the</div><div>seeded cells, the tissue culture condition, and the biochemical and biophysical environment provided by</div><div>the biomaterials-based scaffolds. Proper electrical stimulation and mechanical stretch during the in vitro</div><div>culture can induce the ordered orientation and differentiation of the seeded cells. On the other hand, the</div><div>various scaffolds biochemical and biophysical properties such as polymer composition, ligand concentration,</div><div>biodegradability, scaffold topography and mechanical properties can also have a significant effect</div><div>on the cellular processes.</div>